You can not receive the 10% fee you paid back. However, you are entitled to your collateral and any monies you paid the bondsmen above the 10%. The only way you get it back is if you post a full cash bond to the jail to bond him out. In this case, it sounds like you used a bondsman so no you can't get that back.
Generally, when you use a bondsmen you are paying for a type insurance (a bond) and the money that you give upfront is the premiuim. Like insurance, you are not entitled to get your premiuim back if you never file a claim; it's gone. Often, on minor charges when you have little criminal history, it makes more sense to wait overnight in jail and ask the judge at "first appearances" or "advisories" to release you on your own recognizance.