Yes. On a misdemeanor petty theft charge, the government has a year from the date of the offense to file charges against you. If you were using a local address at the time, or if the store or law enforcement did not have a correct address for you, it is possible that charges have been filed and that you are unaware. If charges have been filed and you missed the court date, you will have a warrant out for your arrest.
With all that being said, it's also possible that nothing came of this and sephora never called law enforcement. Good luck.
If the police were not involved initially when you were detained by the store personnel, the odds are overwhelming that nothing will happen now. Could it? In theory, yes. The prosecution has up to year to file misdemeanor charges such as petty theft. It's not up to the store to "press charges" - that decision is exclusively in the hands of the prosecutor's office.
A police report could have been taken and submitted to the DA for review and the filing of charges, but typically, it doesn't happen if the store doesn't call the police on that first day.
The above answer is for general information only and is based on the information you posted. Every case is fact dependent, so to get a thorough analysis of your situation, you will need to consult face to face with an attorney licensed to practice in the jurisdiction where the incident took place. Do not conclusively rely on any information posted online when deciding what to do about your case.
It seems that the store was willing to accept repayment as an alternative to prosecution. It is possible that they could report the matter to the police if their demand for payment goes unanswered; however, as noted here, the charges would need to be filed within one year. In the event that the case is filed and you are in Europe the court will issue a warrant for your arrest - this would complicate matters if you ever decide to return to this country. You will be able to do an online criminal case check using the Los Angeles Superior Court's website - in the event that a case is filed you may still be able to resolve everything by having a local attorney handle everything for you.
This answer is for general informational purposes only and shall not constitute legal advice. I have answered a question on a public forum which does not establish any attorney-client relationship. For a more detailed legal analysis you should consult with a legal professional in your area.