You would do well to get a lawyer in Virginia. I do not know whether you will be charged with something other than what you have been charged with. Virginia can be very tough on penalties for traffic offenses, which can affect you in Maryland.
This answer is given merely for informational purposes and does not create an attorney-client relationship. For specific advice, contact an attorney in your state to see if working together makes sense.
If you currently reside in Maryland and have a Maryland driver's license, then 46.2-308 does not apply to you. However, it sounds like you told the officer that you resided in VA and, if true, that would have caused you to potentially run afoul of 46.2-308/46.2-300 (which is probably why the officer charged you). The second charge (other than speeding) is a Class 2 Misdemeanor and I've seen it misapplied before, so you will want to take straightening this all out seriously.
You should contact an attorney to help get on resolving this confusion - and you could potentially get some help on the speeding ticket as well.
46.2-300 is driving without a valid license. You had a valid license from Maryland, so it would not apply to you. Virginia does require you to obtain a Virginia license within 30 days of moving to Virginia, so that is why you were charged under that statute.
An attorney would be invaluable in assisting you take care of the license ticket. While there is no guarantee that the charge will be dismissed, the odds of getting it dismissed would be greatly improved if you had an attorney.