Well, there are several questions to your post. First did you ever tell your employer you were hurt on the job? Second, how long ago was your accident? With something as serious as a back surgery you should contact legal counsel and talk directly with an attorney. It is possible that your claim is barred but more specific facts to your circumstances are needed to determine where you stand.
You can bring a workers compensation claim if you have not waited too long. Whether you are successful will depend on a number of factors, and there is not enough information in your post to make any evaluations. See a Georgia workers comp attorney asap.
You can file a workers' comp claim against your employer. You have a very serious injury and need the help of an attorney as there may be several defenses that the employer/insurer will raise. However, there are ususally a number of ways around these defenses. I would need more details to fully answer your question so you may want to call me.
You must be able to answer the following questions and then see a local workers' compensation lawyer as soon as possible. Does the job know your were hurt? Who paid for the back surgery? Were you paid a wage replacement while you were out getting better and, if yes, who was paying you? How much time has passed since the accident? Answers to the above questions will help in making the next move. Good luck.