You or your attoney makes a motion for a jury trial before the court. The court must grant the motion if you are charged with a felony and in most states, a misdemeanor that carries jsil time if convicted.
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If you are charged with a misdemeanor, gross misdemeanor, or felony, you have any absolute right to a jury trial. No judge can deny it. If you are only charged with a petty misdemeanor, then you do not get a jury.