If you were a civilian Federal Employee when you were hurt, the first thing to do is to file a Notice of Traumatic Injury on Form CA 1. COP is paid for the first 45 days and then wage loss compensation after you file the CA 7.
If you hurt your hand and you will have to undergo surgery, there will probably be permanent partial impairment and that means a schedule award once you reach maximum medical improvement.
For Federal Employees who are injured in the performance of duty, the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs will administer your claim. Make sure the OWCP pre approves the surgery. The law that the OWCP administers is called the Federal Employees' Compensation Act and can be found at 5 USC 8107 et seq.
You have not provided enough information for me to know if you will be paid retroactively. I suggest you contact a union steward or a local attorney. Do not delay. There is a statute of limitations involved.
Please contact me at my office to discuss your claim.
All my best,
Lori T. Williams
Owner Managing Attorney
Your Legal Resource, PLLC
248 594 4470