Probably not. The very nature of adoption is fraught with uncertainty when you are asking a biological parent to give up a child, that is why the social workers do an exhaustive investigation before approving an adoption. I have never heard of someone trying to do this so it might be possible -- sorry I ca't be more definitive.
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I'm so sorry this happened to you.
Check with a tax professional. Some costs of a failed adoption attempt qualify for the Adoption
Tax Credit. I don't know if any of the costs of the child's care pending the proposed adoption would be considered qualified adoption expenses, but it would be worth checking out.
I am really sorry this happend to you but I don't think you have a case. Think about it this way, you gave the child a great gift of food and shelter because you loved them not because you were purchasing them, you don't expect payment for gifts.
Some mothers don't realize how important their child is untill they are forced with signing their parental rights away and in many, but not all, cases it is in the best interest of the child to be with their biological parents, no matter how good of parents you would have been.
I wish you luck in the future.
Legal disclaimer: This answer is offered for informational purposes only. It is not offered as, and does not constitute, legal advice. Do not rely on this advice without speaking to an immigration attorney in detail about your case. This message does not create an attorney-client relationship.