You should start with a FOIA request. It's free to do, but it will take several months to get the response back. To know who to send the request to, it's important to know what agency was involved. Did your husband have a case in immigration court, where a judge ordered him deported? That would be a FOIA to EOIR, the agency that has the immigration courts. They have instructions online here: http://www.justice.gov/eoir/efoia/foiafact.htm. If all of this happened at the border, without your husband ever going before a judge, then you probably need to make a FOIA request with CBP, the agency that works at the border: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/admin/fl/foia/. You can call the U.S. embassy in your husband's country to see if they have this information, but my guess is they will tell you to do the FOIA.
The information offered is general in nature and not meant to be relied upon as legal advice. No client-attorney relationship is created through this information. Please consult an attorney prior to making legal decisions.
Submit a FOIA request. However, I would strongly suggest that you use an immigration lawyer. There is much more to our profession than filling out forms. There is a lot of analysis that occurs behind the scenes. Get a lawyer and do it right the first time. Repeating anything in the world of immigration is on a time scale of months or years. If you appreciate the time spent preparing this answer, kindly consider marking it BEST ANSWER or HELPFUL. Good luck to you.
Dean P. Murray
The Murray Law Firm
560 Sylvan Avenue
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
Mr. Murray's response is NOT legal advice and does NOT create an attorney-client relationship. You should NOT rely on this response. Mr. Murray's response was generated without conducting a full inquiry as would occur during a face to face attorney-client consultation. It is likely that the response above may be made less accurate, or become entirely inaccurate, as you, i.e. the questioner, disclose additional facts that should only be discussed during a private consultation with an attorney. I strongly recommend that you consult an attorney who is licensed to practice law in your state (or, in the case of immigration law, and attorney in ANY state), whereupon all relevant facts will be discussed. All responses posted by Mr. Murray on Avvo.com are intended as general information for the education of the public, and not for any specific individual.
It is very unlikely that the consulate will give you any information unless he already applied for a visa. if he was ordered removed by an immigration judge, you can check with the court where the decision was made. Otherwise, file a FOIA request.
If he has overstayed for fewer than 180 days and has left voluntarily without deportation, it's for 3 years. If he has already served that time, you should contact an attorney to help with the procedure to bring him back.
Dhenu Savla, Esq.
This answer does not create an attorney-client relationship and is not meant to be relied upon as legal advice.