This is your exam question, or a paper you are writing?
We do not have a client/attorney relationship until you make an appointment, we discuss your case face to face, I accept a retainer, and we explictly agree to enter into representation.
Read Apprendi. Then read the USSC cases that follow.
Nothing in this communication should be construed as creating an attorney client relationship. This is for informational purposes only. Attorney will take no action on your behalf unless and until a written retainer agreement is signed.
There are classes to study for the Bar exam, I would not suggest using AVVO.
To answer your question, read the case.