You need to find out the name and address of the administrator of the health plan and send a letter requesting a copy of the summary benefit plan. They have 30 days to send you the plan, which will let you know whether you qualify for health insurance under the plan. If they don't send the plan, penalties accrue at $100 per day.
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It is generally not required for an employer to provide health insurance except in a few jurisdictions like San Francisco. In your case though your employer may have violated disability discrimination laws by excluding you from insurance. We would need more facts to determine this. You should speak with an employment attorney.