They don't really have to until you sue them. Then, if they have homeowners insurance, if they expect to have the insurance company pay, the "tender" (give) the defense and indemnification over to the insurace company who then contacts you through the attorney they aassign to the case.
The above is general legal and business analysis. It is not "legal advice" but analysis, and different lawyers may analyse this matter differently, especially if there are additional facts not reflected in the question. I am not your attorney until retained by a written retainer agreement signed by both of us. I am only licensed in California. See also avvo.com terms and conditions item 9, incorporated as if it was reprinted here.
There is no national database of homeowners policies available to the general public. Mr. Dolon is correct about how you can force the issue on the discovery of the policy.
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I agree with my colleagues, there is no way to force them to tell you their insurance information short of filing a lawsuit. You need to talk with a local persona injury attorney to discuss your legal options.
DISCLAIMER: David J. McCormick is licensed to practice law in the State of Wisconsin and this answer is being provided for informational purposes only because the laws of your jurisdiction may differ. This answer based on general legal principles and is not intended for the purpose of providing specific legal advice or opinions. Under no circumstances does this answer constitute the establishment of an attorney-client relationship.
I agree with my colleagues. You will have to sue the homeowner to get the insurance information if they will not provide it voluntarily. If you have any further questions, feel free to call.
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Oddly, the homeowners gave you the best advice of all.
There is no obligation in Nevada to simply tell anyone who wants it your insurance information (with a major exception for traffic accidents).
Once you sue, the insurance company will hire a lawyer, and your lawyer will initiate discovery, which will reveal not only the insurance company (which really doesn't matter), but the policy limits. And you will be able to get information about the dog's past behavior, and so forth.
This is an issue where car insurance and homeowner's insurance differ. In a car accident case, the tortfeasor must provide the policy declarations upon the injured party providing one medical bill or record. This is common practice in car accident cases. You are entitled to the identity of a homeowner's insurance company, but you must initiate a lawsuit. There are opinions written by the Discovery Commissioner of the Eighth Judicial District Court that allow for such discovery demands.
Unfortunately, it is hard to determine the amount of available insurance prior to retrieving the declarations. However, if there is a mortgage on the home, the lender generally requires a substantial homeowner's insurance policy to cover their interests. You are very likely covered. You should get a free consultation from a personal injury attorney. If the injuries are substantial, this is a case that a lawyer would likely take on a contingent fee.