Social Security is an insurance program in which benefits are earned by paying premiums in the form of payroll taxes. As a general rule 40 covered quarters (equivalent to 10 years of working) are required. On that bases, it seems clear that your daughter is not eligible for Social Security payments. The other types of welfare benifits you name have other requiremens and are not generally retroactive as well as limited to residents if not citizens.
It is regrettable that your daughter fell ill while in our country. Best wishes for an outcome you can accept, and please remember to designate a best answer.
This answer is offered as a public service for general information only and may not be relied upon as legal advice.
I agree with Ms. Sinclair that there are probably no benefits available to your daughter through the US government. For other readers, had the writer's daughter sought benefits while still in the United States she might have been able to receive SSI or Medicaid depending on her specific circumstances.
Any answers provided to questions are for general information only and do not establish an attorney-client relationship. You should seek legal advice for your specific situation.
Sorry to her about your daughter. As Attorney Sinclair stated, she needed to work in the US for 10 years before becoming eligible for social security.
DISCLAIMER: David J. McCormick is licensed to practice law in the State of Wisconsin and this answer is being provided for informational purposes only because the laws of your jurisdiction may differ. This answer based on general legal principles and is not intended for the purpose of providing specific legal advice or opinions. Under no circumstances does this answer constitute the establishment of an attorney-client relationship.