You can apply for the F-1 visa at any American Consulate you are at. Dont forget though, you'll have to prove you have a home you have no intention of abandoning, and it doesnt seem like you even want to go back there to apply for the visa.
Yes, that's a big problem indeed, the US embassy in Paris will not entertain your student visa application there unless you can prove to be under a particular work or student visa status in France that allows you to either reside, work or study in France, failing which you have no other choice but to apply for your F-1 visa at the US embassy in Dakar. No other US embassy or consulate in the world will accept to entertain your student visa application, given that you will not be able to show any valid residence permit in any of those countries.
Kindly be advised that the answer above is only general in nature cannot be construed as legal advice, given that not enough facts are known. It is your responsibility to retain a lawyer to analyze the facts specific to your particular situation in order to give you specific advice. Specific answers will require cognizance of all pertinent facts about your case. Any answers offered on Avvo are of a general nature only, and are not meant to create an attorney-client relationship.
You may be denied an F-1 visa because it appears that you have no intention of returning to your home country.
Mr. Shusterman's (former INS Trial Attorney, 1976-82) response to your question is general in nature, as not all the facts are known to him. You should retain an attorney experienced in immigration law to review all the facts in your case in order to receive advice specific to your case. Mr. Shusterman's statement above does not create an attorney/client relationship.
You must demonstrate that you have not abandoned your connections with Senegal and that you intend to return there at the end of your student tenure, without which you may be denied an F-1 visa.