Have right to attorney. Public defender requires defendant to be indigent. Ask court.
Are you sure the Court on its own motion raised the charges from a misdemeanor to a felony. That might , if true, be a violation of the separation of powers. DAs not courts charge violations.
The above is not intended as legal advice. The response does not constitute the creation of an attorney client relationship as this forum does not provide for a confidential communication.
First, the judge does not have the power to "up" a charge to a felony. The decision of what level offense to charge is up to the prosecutor, and for felonies ultimately is up to the grand jury in Texas criminal prosecution.
A public defender? Most Texas communities do not have public defender offices and instead rely on the appointment of private practice attorneys to represent those who do not have the financial ability to hire a lawyer. If your grandson is an adult, that decision should be based on his resources and, if he is married, those of his spouse.
There is no set time that a criminal case takes from beginning to end. Every case is different.
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I agree with the other attorneys that the court cannot change to charge to a felony. Your grandson will have to apply to the Court for a court apponted lawyer. How long the case will take depends on the court and the county where its filed. Consult with a lawyer who practices in that court fot that answer.