The $300,000 is the cap in discrimination cases for the entire compensatory damages portion of the case. Other sources of money may be available if the facts and circumstances justify a punitive damages award. The prevailing party may be entitled to reasonable attorney's fees which is paid to the attorney by the employer. Consult with a Texas employment lawyer. I wish you well.
The EEOC does not work on contingency. They are paid for by your tax dollars as a government agency.
You may want to hire an attorney regardless of what the EEOC says because you can also be awarded attorney fees on top of the compensatory damages. You may also have claims under state anti-discrimination laws and other various state tort and employment claims that the EEOC will not pursue on your behalf. Those claims may expand your ability to recover from your employer. Many employment lawyers offer free or low cost consultations, it may be worth talking to somebody in your area (or a larger city near you) about your case.