If the speaker took the laptop, and you did not object, a reasonable person could take that as a consent by you to the initial taking. That would pretty much rule out criminal liability, though there might possibly be civil liability.
If you never got the laptop back, you might contact the university administration, or the speaker himself, and ask to get it back, or to get compensation. There is a substantial possibility that could work, and no lawsuit would be required. However, if it did not work, you would have a reasonable basis for a lawsuit for failing to return the property.
The right of a teacher to seize and destroy property of a student sometimes exists, and sometimes does not. A good place to start would be the rules of the school. If the rules prohibit certain activity, and provide for seizure of the phone, then of course the teacher could do it, since the student agrees to abide by the rules of the school when signing up to attend. This would apply regardless of whether the student was spoiled.
Even if it turns out that the teacher did not have the authority to do it, it is unlikely it would result in criminal charges because the teacher would be acting with the good faith (though mistaken) belief he had the right to do it. That would in some cases still allow for civil liability of the teacher.
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Let's say you do your own homework. That would be your instructor's preference.
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Is this for an exam?
I am a former federal and State prosecutor and now handle criminal defense and personal injury/civil rights cases. Feel free to check out my web site and contact me at (212) 385-8015 or via email at Eric@RothsteinLawNY.com. The above answer is for informational purposes only and not meant as legal advice.