No. You cannot be fired in CA if you voluntarily enter rehab. and they fire you for THAT reason. But, of course, if you go to work drunk or get drunk at work, you can be fired for that. Not only is it bad for the company's business, you could be considered a danger to yourself or others.
Alcoholism is a disability under the ADA and the Fair Employment and Housing Act and it would be illegal to fire an employee BECAUSE the employee is an alcoholic. However, employees are still required to follow reasonable work rules:
To paraphrase 42 U.S.C.A. § 12114: An employer may: prohibit the use of alcohol at the workplace by all employees; require that employees shall not be under the influence of alcohol; hold an employee who is an alcoholic to the same qualification standards for employment or job performance and behavior as other employees.
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My colleagues are spot on. You can be fired for coming to work drunk. You cannot be fired for being an alcoholic or for going to rehab.
The time limit for filing a claim of disability discrimination is one year from the act you complain of. You must file an administrative complaint with the Department of Fair Employment and Housing by that time.
Good luck to you.
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Terminating an employee for coming intoxicated to work is perfectly legal, and is not the same as being terminate for entering into a rehab program, which would be an illegal discrimination.