It will have no effect on your adjustment so long as you are marrying a US citizen and you do not have a 2 year foreign residency requirement on your J-1. If you have the 2 year, you cannot adjust to permanent residence until you have fulfilled this requirement, unless you are lucky enough to obtain a waiver. Consult a lawyer.Ask a similar question
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Any period of lawful status is always a concern.
It is advisable to work with an immigration lawyer to have your concerns addressed.
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The CIS most likely already knows that your request for F1 status was denied. If your J1 did not have the 2 year foreign residence requirement, then you may adjust status based on your marriage to a US citizen.
Do have a lawyer look at your J1 papers though. Being subject to the 2 year foreign residence requirement is a matter of actual facts, not simply the endorsement on your passport.