You do not specify what was circulated or how the person knew of the information that was circulated. Depending on the circumstances, you should consult with an employment attorney to determine what rights you may have.
Your post raises many questions which need to be addressed but which probably should not be done in a public forum. Among the questions which come to mind, what was the content of the email? Was the email in any way work related or have a work related purpose? Was the content about you untrue? Did the email contain information for which you had a reasonable expectation of privacy? How did the email cause you harm? What were the other reasons you decided to leave the company? How did this executive obtain the email or its content?
I suggest you privately consult with an employment law attorney and be prepared to answer these questions and, probably, more the attorney will have.
They say you get what you pay for, and this response is free, so take it for what it is worth. This is my opinion based on very limited information. My opinion should not be taken as legal advice. For true advice, we would require a confidential consultation where I would ask you questions and get your complete story. This is a public forum, so remember, nothing here is confidential. Nor am I your attorney. I do not know who you are and you have not hired me to provide any legal service. To do so would require us to meet and sign written retainer agreement. My responses are intended for general information only.
"Do I have a sexual harassment claim?" I agree with my colleagues: It depends, mostly on answers itemized in Attorney Kirschbaum's response. While the heading reads "sexual harassment", the body of the inquiry refers to things done in your "personal life".
It sounds like it hurt, and that it adversely affected your ability to supervise - two very important points in such a claim. I would want to know that you complained to HR or your manager, or pursuant to an internal complaint procedure. A good confidential consultation with a good attorney really sounds warranted.
This information should not be considered legal advice or a legal opinion, and it does not create an attorney-client relationship. The information herein is general and for educational purposes only. A complete consultation, including review of facts and documents and research is required for specific legal advice or a legal opinion. You should consult an attorney for legal advice for your particular circumstances.
Were you sexually harassed? For a workplace sexual harassment claim to be valid, the conduct must be either "severe or pervasive." Call an employment law attorney to discuss the facts applicable to your situation. Many of us offer a free initial phone consultation.