What you need is an R-1 "Religious Worker" visa. If BOTH the religious institution in question and you yourself qualify for that, that institution can file a Religious Worker's petition on your behalf, which must be received by USCIS prior to your B-1/B-2 I-94 admission date having expired. Schedule a consultation with an experienced immigration lawyer to be explained the process and see whether you qualify. You can find one using Avvo's "find a lawyer" feature located right here at the top of this page.
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Assuming both the religious institution and you meet the requirements, your employer will file form I-129 with R Supplement on your behalf. Your religious institution should schedule a consultation with an immigration attorney to discuss the requirements.
The religious institution can file for you if you meet the criterion. The timeframe is about one year. Consult with an immigration attorney since the process is complicated.
A change of status is available, however, there is likely to be an issue of the circumstances under which you received your B visa and when and how you located the clergy position in the U.S. It is best that you consult an immigration before filing any applications.
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