I disagree here. If a potential client wants to give a fake name at the consultation stage that is their choice. In Europe and elsewhere they do have KYE (Know Your Client) laws requiring positive ID and they also have watered down confidentiality rules. I can think of many legitimate reasons why someone may not want to release their name.
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I don't understand why you don't want to use your real name. Perhaps you should simply disclose to the attorney the fact that you'd rather not identify yourself, instead of using a fake name. Anyway, if you are disclosing the facts of your case to attorneys on the phone, those facts will be considered client confidences. I really encourage you to discuss your confidentiality concerns with counsel as part of these initial conversations, let the lawyer explain how your conversation will be protected from further disclosure and refrain from using a fake identity.
Attorneys are required by law to keep all information about clients and potential clients confidential. I don't know why you are reluctant to give you real name to prospective attorneys, but lying about your name is not a scam. A scam is a deliberate attempt to take advantage of others.
One consequence of lying about your name is that when you find an attorney you like, he or she may not be willing to accept you as a client because of your lie. This would probably send up a red flag that the potential client may be extraordinarily secretive and difficult to work with. Of course, I don't know our legal issue so perhaps it makes sense under your circumstances. However, even assuming it is a criminal case, no attorney wants a client who is unnecessarily hard to work with.
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Both my colleagues give good and correct answers.
If someone did that with me, I would decline to take them on as a client.
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I would find a client's use of a fake name to me upsetting for two reasons. First, it would prevent me from checking whether I had a conflict with this particular person. In addition, it would suggest that the client did not trust me.