Your employer has a duty to ensure that your workplace is free from harassment based on protected categories, such as race. This doesn't necessarily mean immediately firing any employee who makes a racist remark. The first step is usually talking to that employee, taking appropriate disciplinary measures, which may be private. If problems persist, then you should bring them to the employer's attention, and, if no steps are taken to address them, consult with an attorney. But just keeping the employee, without that employee's actually doing anything specific, would probably not create any cause of action.
As far as your co-workers not wanting to talk to you anymore - I'm afraid that's one of the consequences, sometimes, of complaining about one's fellow workers.. They may react this way because they're ashamed, or it may be because they're afraid that, if you'd complain about that one person's behavior, you'd do the same to any of them - or it may be the way you talk about the matter more generally. But in any case, the law is powerless to change it.
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