Generally, copyright does not protect a single word or a very short phrase, by itself.
A trademark may protect a single word or short phrase.
A particular photograph, for example, of a landmark may be protected by copyright.
You should consult with an intellectual property attorney and show him or her exactly what you plan on doing.
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Using quotes will generally be permitted. This is largely because using what amounts to a very small portion of a much larger body of work will not be considered copyright infringement and short phrases or small groups of words are not protected under copyright law. Now in some cases, especially where the work from which the quote was pulled is widely recognizable (the money part; like the chorus of a very famous song for example) it may be a copyright infringement issue.
That said, some phrases are being employed as trademarks (slogans or taglines) and you need to be careful that whatever you use will not be considered infringing. In most cases, this will probably be obvious but certainly not in all.
Further, using the names and likenesses of authors can easily become a publicity and privacy rights issue, especially if it seems that you are playing off of their celebrity and name recognition.
Before you jump in, I suggest that you consult with a lawyer in private and discuss your objectives in more detail. You can start by calling around to several for a free phone consultation, get some insights then pick the best fit to work with.
DISCLAIMER: this is not intended to be specific legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. No attorney-client relationship is formed with the law firm of Natoli-Lapin, LLC on the basis of this posting.
You can certainly do this. However, don't expect to stop others from doing it as well.
There is no trademark protection for putting certain phrases or images on the front of a t-shirt. Trademark applies to the brand, the source of the goods. Look inside the shirt you buy with Sports logos - they should have the NFL or MLB name and logo on the inside label/tag as well as a hangtag. MLB is the source of the goods (and the owner of the actual logos). However, anyone can print any phrase on a shirt, so long as it is not a protected phrase or image.
If you want to start a line of such shirts, you might consider adopting a brand and having it on hangtags or labels. T-shirt printers will work with you to imprint the labels and hangtags are easily applied. However, the protection will only apply to the brand, and not phrases on the shirts.
Consult an IP attorney to figure out your best plan of action.
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