Without knowing more, I would yes you can travel within the U.S. if you have a valid passport. As a F1 student, your I-94 (Arrival-Departure Document) should be marked D/S meaning duration of status. Of course, you cannot work and you risk being stopped and asked for evidence that you are in legal status in this country should there by probable cause to stop you. Hope his helps. Wishing you well.
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f you were supposed to enroll full time this semester and you did not, then your school has more than likely terminated your SEVIS record for failure to enroll. This means that you are in the US as an out of status F-1 student. I agree with my colleague that if you are asked to prove your status, this could be a real problem.
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You should also undertand that if you have been without status for you may be barred from re-entry for three to ten years depending upon how long the overstay. I would not recommend travel.
This is not legal advice until I am retained and have reviewed all facts about your situation.
If your last status was F-1, then your I-94 card, most likely, shows "D/S" (Duration of Status), as opposed to a specific date you have to leave by. What this means is, even though you appear to be out of status, you are not accruing unlawful presence for purposes of the 3- and 10-year bars (unless the immigration service sent you a letter officially terminating your status). So if you leave and have a basis to come back (marriage, work visa, etc), you should be allowed back in. That being said, getting another student student visa (or a visitor's visa, for that matter) is not very realistic in your situation. Traveling within the U.S. is unlikely to get you in trouble, but there is a certain amount of risk involved (as you may get ID'ed at the airport and, possibly, put in removal (deportation) proceedings.
Gregory Romanovsky, Esq.