Yes, you can file a property damage claim. Your claim would be for the total amount of the damage to the vehicle; either the cost of repair or the value of the vehicle, whichever is less.
You can file a claim for property damage in small claims court. For example in GA, you have four years from the date of accident to file a claim for property damage. If your friend has auto insurance then his carrier may be responsible. If he doesn't own a vehidle ( and may not if he was borrowing yours) then it would be up to you to have to collect any judgment from your firend. If he owns property or works you could file a lien on his property or garnish his wages once you obtain a judgment against him.
Sign up to receive a 3-part series of useful information and advice about personal injury law.