No. You have no right or guarantee to a job through a temp agency. Plus, it is not the agency's fault that you had a criminal record, which is often an impediment to employment.
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Unfortunately, as an at-will-employee, you have no recourse under these circumstances, unless you can show that Kelly treated you differently from other similarly-situated applicants by drawing out the NSF issue and doing so as a consequence of your membership in a protected group, i.e. age, race, gender, etc.