I think that a "student loan" is different from a "personal loan" so in all likelihood you will not succeed in a civil suit. You mentioned nothing about how your education is negatively impacted by the oversight. But most importantly it seems like it was an honest mistake so there's not much that you would recover even under the best of circumstances.
As we don't know enough about your case, you should not consider my answer to be legal advice. You would need to consult with an attorney at length and include details about what has occurred in order to adequately assess your criminal exposure. Also, I am licensed in the state of New York only. If this is a federal case, provided more information were given, we could give you a better idea of the sentencing range. If it is state only, you will need an attorney licensed in your jurisdiction to address this.