No, you cannot sue the sheriff for not pursuing a case. Just as you could not sue the DA /prosecutor for not pursuing the case. It is a matter of discretion each agency has. That does not mean that you cannot write to either or both to find out the status and why nothing is being pursued.
I think TN has a 3 year personal injury statute of limittations. If you know the people involved and if they have some assets, you could sue them in state civil court.
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If a victim walked into my office when I was a prosecutor and started with "i was blackout drunk and didn't know what was going on at first" I would decline to file without any physical evidence too.
Did you say no? Did you call 911? Did you have a rape kit done? Were any of the linens preserved? My questions point out issues with the case.
Here are two locations that can offer you counseling and survivor assistance and point you to help more local to you:
Rape And Sexual Abuse Center
25 Lindsley Ave
Nashville, TN 37210
Sexual Assault Crisis Center
PO Box 11523
Knoxville, TN 37939
Here is link to a report on rape in TN: http://academicdepartments.musc.edu/ncvc/grants/50_states_reports/tennessee.pdf
Mr. Hudson is correct, you should seek a personal injury attorney who is willing to file a personal injury claim on your behalf.
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No, you cannot sue the police, or the prosecutor or district attorney. The DA has wide discretion in deciding to file charges or not. You can contact them to see why they have declined to pursue your case. However, I suspect that your own description of your condition will have played a significant part in their decision.