I am in the process of obtaining my spouse-based green card but I am yet to have a Social security Number. However, for immigration purpose it is required that we have joint taxes filed. Can he perhaps claim me as a dependent? Or how can we file taxes together this season?
Yes but you will need to get an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN)
Here is a link that explains what you need to do: https://www.irs.gov/individuals/international-taxpayers/taxpayer-identification-numbers-tin
Turbo Tax provides the following information that you may find helpful:
In general, resident aliens are taxed just like U.S. citizens. You would list a resident-alien spouse on your return and provide his or her Social Security number (SSN). If your spouse is not eligible for a Social Security number, he or she will need to apply for an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) from the IRS.
If your spouse is a nonresident alien, you have two options:
• Treat your spouse as a resident alien for tax purposes. If you choose this option, you can file a joint tax return with your spouse. You will get the exemption for your spouse, but all your spouse's worldwide income will be taxed by the United States.
• Treat your spouse as a nonresident alien for tax purposes. If you choose this option, you cannot file a joint tax return. You must file with a status of "married filing separately." You may still be able to claim an exemption for your spouse, but only if that spouse has no income from U.S. sources and cannot be claimed as a dependent on anyone else's tax return
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