I am a P1 visa holder and my wife and child have P4 visas. My wife and child do not have social security numbers, is there a way that I can claim then as defendants on my tax return?
In order to claim your wife and child as dependants, you need to obtain an ITIN (Individual Taxpayer Identification Number) for each of them. Use form W-7, which is available at the IRS website online. The issue for you today is that processing of this form takes about 8 weeks, which would put you past the tax filing deadline. If the tax benefit is significant, I would recommend filing an extension. Your accountant can help you figure out the potential savings and can file an extension.
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