No. You cannot. During the month of August only SPOUSES of lawful US permanent residents, who are in valid nonimmigrant status in the US can apply. Unfortunately that's not you.
Behar Intl. Counsel 619.234.5962 Kindly be advised that the answer above is only general in nature cannot be construed as legal advice, given that not enough facts are known. It is your responsibility to retain a lawyer to analyze the facts specific to your particular situation in order to give you specific advice. Specific answers will require cognizance of all pertinent facts about your case. Any answers offered on Avvo are of a general nature only, and are not meant to create an attorney-client relationship.
Even though the Visa Bulletin shows 2A preference category will be current (spouses and minor unmarried children of permanent residents), you cannot apply for adjustment of status due to the fact that you are out of status. Your mother can file an I-130 at this time. However, unless you are 245(i) eligible, you cannot file I-485 at this time.
I agree that you are apparently ineligible to adjust status in the U.S.. However, what you might be able to do is this: arrange to be scheduled for an interview at a U.S. consulate in your home country and then, when it is scheduled, apply for advance parole on the basis of your Deferred Action status. While normally a person who, like you apparently, has been unlawfully present in the U.S. for over a year would be barred from returning to the U.S. for 10 years once he departs the U.S., according to a recent decision of the Board of Immigration Appeals that rule should not apply to someone who leaves the U.S. with advance parole. Therefore, assuming you don't have a criminal record and have never been ordered removed or committed fraud, if you are granted advance parole then you should be able to go to your home country to get an immigrant visa and return in a few weeks as a permanent resident. But you have to act quickly because you are in danger of "aging out" into the much longer F2B category if you don't take action to apply for a visa within a year of your priority date becoming current. Of course all I am doing now is giving you a suggestion for your consideration, and naturally you need to consult in depth with an immigration attorney to get a full understanding of the risks involved in such a course of action.
I am not your attorney and this is not legal advice. I have not done legal research to confirm the accuracy of this answer. I may be retained, for a fee, to issue a formal legal opinion on this issue, which may prove to be different than the answer given here.
Michael E Piston
As you can tell from the other answers, you cannot adjust status. What procedures you may follow to obtain status are tricky and you need to work with a lawyer to ensure you do not make a mistake that leaves you overseas unable to return or somehow committing an act that jeopardizes any future potential for immigrant status.
You are ineligible to adjust status. You need to have an immigration attorney represent you in this matter. You cannot afford to have any mistakes made. I agree with the answers of my colleagues.
Without meeting with you, and knowing all the facts and circumstances of your case, my opinion is not to be construed as legal advice, just general educational information.