Yes. As you say, Oregon is an at-will employment state. An employee can be fired for any reason or no reason at all, as long as it's not for membership in a protected class.
That said, you can still apply for unemployment pay. Your employer would bear the burden of arguing, and proving, that you were not entitled for it. You should consult with an attorney in private if this is an issue.
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It may be worth a few dollars to discuss this issue with an attorney. Noncompetition agreements are covered by ORS 653.295 which limits their enforceability. Some of the provisions of that statute may make any agreement you sign unenforceable. So it may be irrelevant whether you sign the agreement. For instance if you are not being asked to sign the agreement at a time you are advancing in your job, it may not ben enforceable.
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