There is no way for any of us here to be conclusive without seeing the subject material, but in general this would likely fall under the category of standard form type content. That is, it will likely lack the creative expression in a format like a resume to acquire any copyright interest in it. If you compared, for example, ten different resumes that describe the job position it is entirely likely that they would all read very similarly.
I don't blame you for being somewhat annoyed, and this happened to me all the time like when competitors use the wording of my marketing copy, for example, almost word-for-word.
If you believe that I am misunderstanding the extent of your situation and would like further clarification, you should consult a lawyer in private. Most of us here, including myself, offer a free phone consult.
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I agree with Attorney Natoli. Quite honestly, the only foreseeable problem would be for you if you made an issue of it.
I am not your attorney and any posts/messages or responses to posts/messages can not establish an attorney-client relationship. www.PatchogueAttorney.com You should not rely upon free legal advice and I disclaim any liability for the results if you do.
It could cause a problem for you if you complain about it, unless your boss is on your side in raising this issue. Your boss could complain about a job posting with information he did not submit if the job posting was to be for what he submitted. It is your boss's issue, not yours. The content of which you complain is likely so factual that you have no basis for complaint.
I am not your lawyer and you are not my client. Free advice here is without recourse and any reliance thereupon is at your sole risk. This is done without compensation as a free public service. I am licensed in IL, MO, TX and I am a Reg. Pat. Atty. so advice in any other jurisdiction is strictly general advice and should be confirmed with an attorney licensed in that jurisdiction.