You also have a right of replevin to seek the return of personal property which animals are considered. Call animal control or law enforcement if they get your cat again, but don't let it run around outside.
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Call the cops. That is your best option. Also, take steps not to let your cat out unsupervised, if these people are dangerous to animals as you claim.
We do not have an attorney-client relationship. I am not your lawyer. The statements I have made do not constitute legal advice. Any statements I have made are based upon the very limited facts you have presented, and under the premise that you will consult with a local attorney. This is not an attempt to solicit business. This disclaimer is in addition to any disclaimers that this website has made. I am only licensed in California.
In Virginia companion animals like Smokey are considered the owneer's personal property. Your neighbors can no more take Smokey and keep him from you than they could any other item of your personal property. I agree with the others who answered that next time you should call the police. If your neighbors know that you are serious about their taking Smokey, they will probably stop this bizarre conduct.
This answer is a general response to your rather broad quetion and is not meant to be formal legal advice. For a more specific answer to your question, you need to discuss all the specific facts of the case with your attorney.