Once you are married, your husband can file the preference application for you, but because he is a permanent resident, you have an immigrant category of 2A Spouse of a Permanent Resident and there is a wait list to adjust status. I have attached a copy of the most recent visa bulletin and it shows they are processing 2A visas for permanent residence that were filed March 2008.
Once he becomes a USC, there is no wait as then you would be the spouse of a USC.
A student visa is a temporary visa as a non resident. The idea is that you would go home at the end of the studies. Therefore for a spouse to accompany their student spouse is of no permanent and immigration consequence.
A legal permanent resident can petition for his spouse, but the foreigner cannot apply for residency until the priority date becomes current. This will take a matter of years.
It is unfair but true that a non-immigrant (such as a student) can obtain a visa for the temporary stay of his wife.
Please consult with an immigration attorney about the possibilities of your obtaining a non-immigrant visa. If you can get one, you can come to the U.S.