I doubt HSBC UAE will pursue to the United States even though HSBC operates here. For starters, it just would not be economical for them to chase you here so keep your fingers crossed as you may be in the clear. A judgment from the UAE likely is not enforceable in the US without a lot of expense to HSBC. Just stay from HSBC and any of its credit card brands here.
To answer your questions:
1. HSBC UAE does have a legal basis to pursue you in the United States. A default is a default anywhere in the world. Who knows what UAE legal system permits? Maybe they can enter a default judgment there and then send it to NY counsel to domesticate.
2. HSBC can take money from your US bank account only if they obtain a judgment in New York.
3. I'm pretty sure that no U.S. judge would domesticate a UAE judgment that would result in you being caned or incarcerated. ;-)