If the Chapter 13 plan is not completed, the claim being disallowed has little implication outside of bankruptcy other than perhaps being useful to lock parties into statements and positions in other litigation.
Advice on this forum is for informational purposes only and should never be mistaken as a substitute for legal advice. If you are in need of legal advice, you should consult local legal counsel.
When you fail to complete your 13 and the case is dismissed, all BK protection is lost. The effect of rulings issued in the BK case cannot be determined by anyone except your attorney who has possession of all the relevant facts. As pointed out by others, there may be some "res judicata" or "estoppel" arguments to be made in post-BK litigation.
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Claims can be denied for many reasons and I cannot guess or predict what a judge will do with this claim. To clarify some confusion, liability and ownership are two different things. Quit-claiming an interest in the home changes ownership of the home but does not change the parents' obligations to pay on the loan if they were co-borrowers. A loan must be refinanced or assumed by another party in order for liability to change. (Assumption requires permission of the bank).
If the parents filed the bankruptcy, their bankruptcy will not change their daughter's obligation to pay on her debts. The bankruptcy only affects the parent's obligations. If the parents were co-borrowers on their daughter's loan and they do not complete their bankruptcy to receive a discharge, they will still be personally liable (along with their daughter) on the loan. If the loan is secured by a home and is not paid, the lender has the right to foreclose on the property or potentially sue all borrowers (parents and daughter) for payment.
The parents should speak with their bankruptcy attorney to clarify their and their daughter's potential liability if the bankruptcy is dismissed before discharge. The attorney will know more about whose names are on these loans and who liable for payment.
This information is not, nor is it intended to be, legal advice. You should consult an attorney in your area for advice regarding your situation.