If you owed the bank money, regardless of the reason, they might have reported the debt on your credit report. If the issue was reported on your credit report, it could affect your ability to get the lease. To get a free copy of your credit report, go to www.annualcreditreport.com. You can check and see if they reported it.
The fact that you lost your job is irrelevant to the credit bureaus and will not help you to improve your credit score. However, unless you have debt to a public hospital for medical care, your Visa will not be affected by any ordinary civil debt. Hope this perspective helps!