Warfarin (coumadin) can cause bleeding. But after heart valve surgery, it is standard practice to prescribe it because of risk of blood clots. It is certainly possible that your coumadin regime was not properly monitored, and that caused the bleeding. But you have no way of finding out without expert legal representation. You may already be out of time - I don't know where your z p code is, but most states have a short statute of limitations for medical malpractice claims. You should seek the advice of an experienced medical malpractice lawyer in your state immediately.
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As Mr. Brophy said, any patient that has mechanical heart valves must be on Coumadin (Warfarin). It is the standard of care because the artificial heart valves can cause blood clots to form if the blood isn't thinned. Those little clots can shoot up into the carotids and the brain, thereby causing a clot-based stroke. It is true, though, that Warfarin can sometimes cause brain bleeds. Sometimes a bleed occurs naturally but the thinned-out blood just makes it far worse. It is important that the Coumadin-taking patient have regular blood tests to ensure their PT & INR (ie -- "Coumadin levels") stay within a therapeutic range. If it gets too high, this can predispose a hemorrhagic stroke.
Based on your description, this does not sound like a case of medical error. Instead, it sounds like a really terrible outcome where no medical provider actually did anything wrong.
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