No, you can't sue your school for giving you detention.
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Your student handbook set forth the circumstances in which you have a right to appeal student discipline. In some schools the imposition of detention can be appealed from. In other schools that penalty is viewed as too minor and there is no appeal.
If you have the right to an administrative appeal, you need to be certain that you make your appeal within the narrow and strict time limits provided by the process.
Candidly, the issues you raise are not good defenses. It is never a sound argument that you should not be punished because someone else got away with something. And your other two arguments both turn on a credibility issue as between you and the citing teacher. The school has the right to decide that issue in the teacher's favor.
If you do not have defenses that are more compelling, you may decide to just let this one go.
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