He can but should really retain an attorney.
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He can, but it's not easy and requires qualifying as pro se. It's really not a good idea. He should apply for a public defender and wait until one is assigned. You should also call more lawyers and see if you can find someone for a lower retainer.
You have the right to request discovery. Also apply for the public defender. An attorney is necessary with these charges.
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He will be assigned a PD if a private attorney does not enter the case. He can decline and ask to represent himself down the road. That may be granted after a full hearing with the judge. In the mean time get the PD and have the PD get discovery (you do not have to pay for it then). 40K is reasonable for a retainer on a murder but many attorneys may start you less.