There is no grace period within which to file the change of status. So if you are not able to file the application for the change of status before you are terminated, then you are out of status. However USCIS has the discretion to accept the untimely filed change of status and can approve it despite the gap in status. If your L-2 is approved then you will not have been out of status during the period when the application was pending.
If you get an RFE you should consult with an attorney on the best way to respond.
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Only if you submit the COS before your last day at work. Otherwise, it will be up to USCIS' discretion whether to overlook the few days of being out of status.
J Charles Ferrari Eng & Nishimura 213.622.2255 The statement above is general in nature and does not constitute legal advice, as not all the facts are known. You should retain an attorney to review all the facts specific to your case in order to receive advise specific to your case. The statement above does not create an attorney/client relationship. Answers on Avvo can only be general ones, as specific answers would require knowledge of all the facts. As such, they may or may not apply to the question.
I agree with the other attorneys, file a COS before your last day of work.
FORMER IMMIGRATION LAW PROFESSOR -- LEGAL DISCLAIMER: This answer is offered for informational purposes only. It does not constitute an attorney-client relationship.
File the change of status before your H1expires.
The answer provided here is general in nature and does not take into account other factors that may need to be reviewed for a more precise answer. You should consult with an immigration attorney before taking any action. The answer here is not intended to create an attorney-client relationship.