Your not going to want to file bankruptcy for $4,000.00. However, if you owe a lot of other debts, now may be the time to consult with an experienced, local, bankruptcy attorney.
If the bill is from 2011, it should drop off your credit report sometime in 2018.
What is your reasoning for wanting to file an extension for 2016? If you are due a refund it is an asset that would have to be listed in your bankruptcy regardless of whether a return is filed. Also if you're due a refund the IRS is going to have already taken it and applied it toward those back tax years that you're trying to discharge, so you're not going to end up discharging your old taxes and getting a refund to put back in your pocket at the same time.
You can get a copy of his bankruptcy petition from the court. Attached to the petition is a schedule A/B which lists all his assets.
The fact that you filed bankruptcy is public record. Many companies monitor the bankruptcy filings and send out advertising material accordingly. And of course there are companies that specialize in selling this information to other companies.
Filing bankruptcy will not affect your student loans unless you're eligible for a hardship discharge. I recommend calling attorney Jay fleshman in Pasadena. Or you can Google his website, there's a lot of information about student loans on it.
I agree with Gary. When one spouse files bankruptcy in a community property state, the community gets a discharge. Effectively keeping the creditors from going after the non-filing spouse, on a joint debt, as long as they remain married. Death or divorce will allow the Creditor to go after the non-filing spouse.
Try the find an attorney tab or Google Gary Holt, I know he covers San Diego and he's a great attorney.
I think the question you're asking and the issue my colleagues are missing is the fact that you're filing taxes single when in fact you are married. You are perjuring yourself on your taxes in order to pay less federal income tax. Some trustees may report this to the IRS or refer your case to the United States trustee's office because you have committed a crime. Whether anything happens after that, I couldn't tell you. I would urge you to file your taxes appropriately, especially if you're going to send the bankruptcy court trustee a copy of your tax return as is required.
I'm sorry, I don't understand your question. If you mean that your debt is no longer collectible because it's barred by the statute of limitations, a bankruptcy filing will not revive it. Maybe you could explain a little more about the situation.