You should consult with an experienced immigration attorney as to what qualifies as a "qualifying organization." A qualifying organization can be a branch, subsidiary, parent, or affiliate but you must show proof of how the companies are linked financially, owned, etc.
There's technically no waiting period before applying again but you need to address the issues of why it was denied in the first place. You should consult with an immigration attorney to get advice on how to prepare a packet to present to the US embassy of the applicant's "strong ties" to his/her home country to ensure return to the home country after visiting the US.
You may travel outside of the US but you will have to go to a US embassy to get a new H visa before returning to the US. H1 is a dual intent visa so it should not matter that you have a labor certification pending as long as your H-1B is valid. You should take the I-129 approval notice as well as a current employment letter to present to the US embassy.
Yes, you can use the intending immigrant's assets and the total value of the assets must equal at least 5 times the difference between the household income and the current poverty guidelines for the household size. You should review the instructions for the I-864 that can be found at www.uscis.gov. In addition, your son and his spouse should consult with an attorney to make sure of assets eligibility and help your son through the green card process.
Does your friend have a US citizen or permanent resident child? Did your friend come to the US before his 16th birthday? Your friend should consult with an immigration attorney. You can also find the information regarding President Obama executive order at: http://www.uscis.gov/immigrationaction
It would be a good idea to do a DNA test as well as amend the birth certificate. You will also have to show that you have a relationship with the child (photos, paid bills, letter from biological mom, etc.). You should consult with an experienced immigration attorney to make sure you are eligible and assist you with DAPA.
It depends on where you live and can find the info at http://www.uscis.gov/n-400. If you live in CO, you send it to:
P.O. Box 21251
Phoenix, AZ 85036
For Express Mail or courier deliveries, use the following address:
1820 E. Skyharbor Circle S
Phoenix, AZ 85034
You would still use the last date you entered the US, and you can put the new I-94 number on the form.
You will not be issued a social security card without showing that you have been granted legal status in the US, so you would have to provide the documentation. If you have a work permit, the SSA will accept that.
If your H-1B is valid, you can travel abroad as the H1 is a dual intent visa so you can be trying to obtain permanent residency. If you do not have a valid H visa in your passport, you will need to go to a US Embassy to get one before returning to the US.