What kind of cases can hurt my record?
In short - all of them! Mainly, all felonies will be a very negative mark on your record, no matter what they are. Misdemeanors that can hurt you almost as much as a felony include theft, possession of marijuana or possession of controlled substance. Why? These kinds of cases can affect your driver's license and your reputation as an honest person. There are repercussions that come with every type of offense being on your record.
What can you do about this?
First - make sure you hire the right attorney who knows how to keep these off your record and then clean up your record afterwards through either expungement or a petition for non-disclosure. Second - don't assume that just because a case is a deferred or dismissed, then it's off your record. IT'S NOT! You must hire an attorney to file either a petition for non-disclosure or an expungement and have them tell you - this is off your record now, before you are in the clear!