Advanced estate planning, often involves income tax considerations. Advanced planning involves creation of trusts and/or entities.

Sometimes, advanced estate planning is used to reduce income taxes by shifting income from a taxpayer in a high bracket to a taxpayer in a lower bracket. Irrevocable trusts are often used for this purpose when the "kiddie tax" does not apply. The "kiddie tax," when applicable, imposes the parent’s tax rate to the income of the taxpayer’s child who is under age 24.

For this donor to donee income tax liability shift to occur, the trust cannot be a grantor trust with respect to the donor. On the other hand, if the trust is a grantor trust, the donor’s paying the income tax on the trust’s income is not an additional gift. Thus not shifting the tax responsibility can be used to transfer additional wealth to children and grandchildren without using the donor’s gift tax exemption.

When an asset is sold, the tax is determined by the amount of gain realized. Gain is generally the difference between the net proceeds of the sale and the taxpayer’s basis in the asset. If the taxpayer receives the asset as a gift, the taxpayer’s basis is the previous owner’s basis plus any subsequent investment by the taxpayer. If the taxpayer received the gift as an inheritance, the basis is the asset’s value at the death of the prior owner plus any subsequent investment by the taxpayer. Advanced estate planning, therefore, weighs the estate and gift tax avoided against the increased capital gain that would be due on the recipient’s sale of a gifted asset as opposed to an inherited asset.

Some advanced estate planning involves charities. Trusts with charity and non-charity beneficiaries all have income tax effects. Such trusts are characterized as charitable lead trusts (CLTs) if the charity beneficiaries take before the non-charity beneficiaries and charitable remainder trusts (CRTs) if the charity beneficiaries get what is left over after payment to the non-charity beneficiaries. Both CLTs and CRTs can be grantor trusts or non-grantor trusts, depending on what the client is trying to achieve.

Advanced planning with income tax aspects also includes:

• Investing in assets that produce tax-free income;

• Converting ordinary income into capital gain income;

ª Defering income for the maximum period of time;

• Accelerating deductions to the earliest possible year;

• Taking maximum advantage of depreciation rules;

• Taking maximum advantage of income exclusion rules;

• Avoiding tax-inefficient business structures;

• Structuring transactions to include some or all of the above.

Deciding which of these techniques should be used in a particular case requires advanced estate planning experience and probably accounting analysis. It is, however, important for every advisor to be at least aware that they exist so that the appropriate team member can be called on when needed.