If a healthcare provider did this it might disclose some protected information under HIPAA, but there is no cause of action that an individual can bring for the violation. If a lawyer did this I guess it might be a violation of private information, but I do not see where any damages have occurred. IT is hard to be more specific because we are not sure who you are talking about.
Could be. Depends on all the facts and circumstances. You posted almost none of the relevant information, so there is no way to speculate with any degree of confidence.
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As previously stated, it depends on circumstances. If you feel you have been damaged by the disclosure, I would recommend contacting a local attorney to discuss the specifics of your case. You would then be able to determine how you should proceed.