It is unlawful to discriminate against an employee because of his/her medical condition or disability. You should contact an employment law attorney to discuss the facts of your case.
Of course you can be fired while on disability leave. The law protects you from termination or other negative or adverse employment actions that are based on your use of disability leave. But you can be lawfully terminated for other reasons on other grounds notwithstanding your disability or leave status.
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If you suspect that you were fired on a pretext, you have options. You will need to show that your employer was aware of your disability prior to locking you out. You will also need to rebut the defense as pretextual.
Most attorneys on this board give free half hour consultations. Take advantage of this. You may also want to file with FEHA, that is a simple on-line form. As of January 1, FEHA can demand attorney fees and file actions in civil court.
This answer is not a substitute for legal advice and it does not create an attorney-client relationship. Seek the advice of a licensed attorney before taking any action that may affect your rights
You may have a claim. If your employer's motivation is your disability, the employer has a problem. On the flip side, you are not necessarily immune from termination if the reasons for your termination predate your disability leave. There are other defenses the employer may have. But if you believe the sole reason for your termination is the recent short term disability, you should consult with an attorney to flesh out all the details and evaluate whether a claim exists.