Congratulations on having your court proceedings terminated. It takes 90 days from filing to receive your employment authorization. As for the I-485 processing, you will need to be scheduled for an interview. I would estimate a 6 month process.
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I urge you to get an attorney to assist. you. You seem to have done a great job so far, but it would be easier to get a lawyer. I don't believe any attorney would try to tell someone in a couple sentences how to do a whole case, not to mention without ever having reviewed the entire history that has already happened. You aren't done yet.
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Have you filed for adjustment of status? I think you should consult with an immigration attorney in person before proceeding. This isn't really the right forum to answer this type of question.
If the IJ has terminated the case, and the I-130 is approved (I am assuming it is an immediate relative petition or else I do not see why the IJ would terminate), the case proceeds as would a normal I-485 filing with USCIS service center. It sounds like you are confused about which documents to file, I would definitely consult an Immigration Attorney to make sure the AOS packet is put together correctly. Once filed, the EAD comes within 90 days. The time it takes to receive the green card depends on many factors.
The time frame for processing adjustment is approximately four to five months from submission to interview. The green card will only be approved once you have your adjustment interview. However, more facts are needed to answer your question(s). I agree with my colleague above. Since you have been in removal proceedings, your case is more complex than most; and you should be guided by a competent immigration attorney through the process of adjustment.
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I agree with my colleagues, and would point out that you are asking two inter-related questions, 1) what is the process, and 2) how long does it take? These are inter-related because any (even small) error in putting together your applications and evidence will trigger delays. So the higher the probability of error, the higher the chance for delay. There is a steep learning curve in doing this sort of thing, and you should think about working with someone who has that experience you lack.