I know for example that sports games like Madden or NCAA Football require some sort of licensing agreement with the players' associations. Just was curious if that applied to world-historical figures who died a long time ago as well...
Thank you for your time.
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No, not necessary.
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The legal issue here is that when you use someone's likeness or image this may be violating that person's right to privacy and publicity. These are state causes of action and each state has a different take on how they apply this protection. For example, some only protect celebrities or public figures, others protect anyone and still others will extend protection to dead people.
That said, even those states that protect dead people will only do so for a limited amount of time (generally no more than up to 10 years after death) and certainly historical figures like you noted would not be protected anymore.
You still need to make sure that you are not violating anyone's copyright interest however by using, for example, an image of some figure that is really a artistic work or graphic that is currently protected under copyright laws.
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Gaming Law Attorney
Frank Natoli's answer is correct -- the short version is no, the likenesses of these historical figures would not require licenses but you can get caught up by accidentally using copyrighted material (so make sure the quotes you are using come from the actual subject and not Civ V!)
I focus my practice on (video) gaming industry, casino gambling, and complex internet law issues, electronic free speech, entertainment law, copyright and trademark law, and computer fraud. I primarily represent game developers and founders of emergent internet technologies. The author is a Maryland attorney; however no answer given on Avvo is intended as legal advice or intended to create an attorney-client relationship.